Written in EnglishRead online
|Series||Report of investigations (United States. Bureau of Mines) -- 5275|
|Contributions||Block, F., Campbell, T.|
Download Producing Magnesium by Silicothermic Reduction.
The raw magnesium production, the upstream of magnesium alloys, is mainly rely on the silicothermic reduction process at present. Due to advantages of rapid construction, producing high purity magnesium as well as the simple operation and low investment cost, the Pidgeon process has been developed rapidly since be introduced into China [14, 15].Author: Yusi Che, Yusi Che, Chao Zhang, Jianxun Song, Xiaojia Shang, Xiping Chen, Jilin He, Jilin He.
Dolomite is one of the main raw materials for magnesium production by thermal reduction method and is considered economically. Magnesium thermal reduction is the method that uses natural gas as the process main fuel and nowadays china is the main producer of magnesium and its alloys in the world which produces more than 85% of world magnesium.
Under the reaction temperature ( K) and system pressure ( Pa) of conventional silicothermic reduction producing metallic magnesium (Pidgeon process) conditions, no matter what the relative.
In the last 10 years, the Pidgeon process has come to dominate world magnesium production. China is the dominant magnesium metal supplier, relying almost exclusively on this method.
The silicothermic reduction of dolomite was first developed by Dr. Amati in at the University of Padua, where his thesis is archived. Distribution of impurities in magnesium production via silicothermic reduction Proceedings of EMC stainless-steel retort as shown in Figure 1 and the reduction is carried out at the operating condi-tions.
The reaction of the Pidgeon process can be written as: 2 (s) + (x Fe) Si(s) = 2 Mg(s) + 2 2(s) (1). The use of metallic magnesium is growing very rapidly, mainly for the production of light metal alloys.
The silicothermic reduction of calcined dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2, to metallic magnesium using the abundantly available dolomite mineral was pioneered by Lloyd M.
Pidgeon in Canada during World War. In the present study, the production of magnesium metal from Turkish calcined dolomite containing % MgO and % CaO via Pidgeon process was studied under the pressure of 1 mbar.
In the experiments, Turkish ferrosilicon containing 75 % Si and 24 % Fe was used as reducing agent. Effects of FeSi addition ( % of stoichiometric requirement of silicon).
Significantly, the silicothermic reduction is extended to produce other Si-containing functional materials or alloys such as Si–Sn, Si–Sb, Si–Bi, Si–Cu–Cu 3 Si, and Si–C via the reduction of various oxides or carbonates. This proposed silicothermic reduction system enriches the basic discipline of synthetic chemistry.
The predominant method for magnesium production is the Pidgeon process which is a batch process starting from calcined dolomite and ferrosilicon. CaF 2 is commonly used in the process as the catalyst.
Analyses of the slag samples and thermodynamic calculations indicated that liquid phase plays important role in the reduction process.
The magnesium extracted from the resin is reacted with CaO and precipitates on the surface of fine ferrosilicon suspension to produce a Mg(OH) 2-Ca(OH) 2-FeSi solids cake, which, after further wash and decantation, yields raw material at a quality similar to that used in the classical dolomite-based Pidgeon silicothermic reduction technique.
A novel process has been proposed for magnesium production, in which powder materials including dolomite, ferrosilicon, fluorite and binder are mixed to produce pellets.
Kinetics of the silicothermic reduction using the pre-prepared dolomite pellets was investigated by a non-isothermal, flowing argon-protected gravimetric technique at a. Dolomite treatment by silicothermic reduction process for magnesium production was studied by Morsi et al [34, 35].
The aim of this work is to accomplish chemical, mineralogical and thermal analysis of the slag produced in the Magnetherm type of silicothermic reduction process in magnesium production. Experimental. During the magnesium preparation process of the silicothermic process, dolomite was made into pellets after calcination process, about 5% fine materials would be produced which can't be used and lead to high energy consumption and high-cost.
Based on in-situ reduction of dolomite-based desulfurization theory, this paper proposed a new technology that dolomite was made. Thermochemical equilibrium calculations indicate the possibility of considerable fuel savings and CO 2 emission avoidance in the three steps of the Pidgeon process: (a) calcination of dolomite; (b) production of ferrosilicon from quartz sand, coal, and iron oxide; (c) silicothermic reduction of calcined dolomite by ferrosilicon to magnesium.
All three steps. In this paper, a new efficient one-step technical method was first developed for the production of magnesium in the industry.
The one-step method could combine the two processes of dolomite decomposition and magnesium reduction in the magnesium reduction retort. Thus, the high-temperature carbon dioxide produced by the dolomite decomposition process could be.
Production of Magnesium Metal from Turkish Calcined Dolomite Using Vacuum Silicothermic Reduction Method Conference Paper in Materials Science. The Pidgeon Process is a widely used vacuum silicothermic reduction process to produce primary magnesium (Mg) metal and, the process was developed by Lloyd Montgomery Pidgeon in the beginning of s in Canada.
1,2. Pidgeon was born in in Ontario, Canada. He graduated in chemistry from the University of Manitoba in and, he. Dolomite treatment by silicothermic reduction process for magnesium production was studied by Morsi et al [34, 35]. The aim of this work is to accomplish chemical, mineralogical and thermal analysis of the slag produced in the Magnetherm type of silicothermic reduction process in magnesium production.
Thermochemical equilibrium calculations indicate the possibility of considerable fuel savings and CO2 emission avoidance in the three steps of the Pidgeon process: (a) calcination of dolomite; (b) production of ferrosilicon from quartz sand, coal, and iron oxide; (c) silicothermic reduction of calcined dolomite by ferrosilicon to magnesium.
All three steps should benefit from application. From tohe held a number of senior executive positions with Timminco Ltd., an internationally recognized leader in the production of high-purity magnesium using the Pidgeon silicothermic vacuum reduction process which recovers magnesium metal from briquettes containing ferrosilicon and calcined dolomite.
A novel process of magnesium production has been developed by changing the preparation method of pellets of silicothermic process. For the method, the pellets consist of dolomite, ferrosilicon, fluorite and binder, which need to be roasted before reduction.
However, the discharge of carbon dioxide reduces compressive strength of the pellets during the calcinations. The major part of magnesium production is conducted via the Pidgeon Process which is a metallothermic (silicothermic) method. Metallothermic reduction reactions are normally highly exothermic.
Thus, the propagation of reactions and the yield of reaction products continue in a self-sustaining mode without requiring any additional heat. Ferrosilicon magnesium is basic foundry alloys used for the production of ductile cast iron.
Magnesium content plays an important role in the produced alloy grades from dolomite ore. The focus of the present work is to simulate mathematical model to predict magnesium content in the ferrosilicon magnesium, which produced by silicothermic reduction of calcined dolomite.
Vacuum silicothermic production process, called the Pidgeon Process after its inventor L. Pidgeon, is the dominant primary production method among all processes. It is based on the reduction of Mg in calcined dolomite ore by using ferrosilicon as a reductant in air-sealed retorts under vacuum atmosphere at temperatures between °C and.
Download PDF: Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s): (external link) http. Silicothermic reactions are thermic chemical reaction s using silicon as the reducing agent at high temperature (°C).
The most prominent example is the Pidgeon process for reducing magnesium metal from ore s. Other processes include the Bolzano process and the magnetherm three are commercially used for magnesium production.
(b) Thermal reduction process Dolomite ore is crushed and heated in a kiln to produce a mixture of magnesium and calcium oxides, a process known as calcining: 2CaMg(CO3)2 (s) 2CaO(s) + 2MgO(s) + 4CO2 (g) The next step is reduction of the magnesium.
In China, production increased during the year after decreasing in for the first time since A new plant in Qinghai Province that would produce magnesium from lake brines was expected to ramp up to its full ,ton-per-year capacity in Some plants producing magnesium using the Pidgeon (silicothermic reduction) process.
discrepancy between steel and light metal production. For example, world steel production has increased from to Mtpa from tocompared to growth in aluminium from to Mtpa over the same period. Growth in magnesium production over the same period has been impressive, Mtpa to Mtpa, but this has been from a low.
the silicothermic reduction of calcined dolomite using Turkish ores and ferrosilicon sources. In the common silicothermic process, the use of ferrosilicon increases the cost of production. This work aims to reduce the cost of magnesium production by using CaC 2 instead of ferrosilicon as much as possible.
CaC 2 is a chemical. Silicothermic reactions are thermic chemical reactions using silicon as the reducing agent at high temperature (°C).
The most prominent example is the Pidgeon process for reducing magnesium metal from processes include the Bolzano process and the magnetherm three are commercially used for magnesium production.
The Complete Book on Ferroalloys (Ferro Manganese, Ferro Molybdenum, Ferro Niobium, Silicothermic Production of Medium-Carbon Ferro-manganese Thermodynamics of Reduction of Manganese Oxides High Carbon Ferromanganese Slags Refining of Ferro Manganese Introduction The Sintering Pilot Facility Preparation of the Sinter Mix.
stoichiometry to give maximum reduction of 80% after 15 minutes reduction time at a temperature of °C. XRD and XRF measurements were used to determine the phases present and the extent of reduction of magnesium, respectively.
Keywords magnesium, dolomite ore, magnetherm, magnetherm reactor, silicothermic reduction. In China, a new ,ton-per-year plant in Qinghai Province that would produce magnesium from lake brines was completed in and was expected to ramp up to full capacity in early Some plants producing magnesium using the Pidgeon (silicothermic reduction) process were expected to shut down, owing to energy cost increases and.
Try the new Google Books. Check out the new look and enjoy easier access to your favorite features. Try it now. No thanks. Try the new Google Books A Study of the Silico-thermic Process for the Production of Magnesium. James Makoto Toguri.
D., 0 Reviews. What people are saying - Write a review. We haven't found any reviews in the. Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg and atomic number It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure.
The Pidgeon process is one of the methods of magnesium metal production, via a silicothermic reduction. Practical production requires roughly MWh/ton of metal produced, which is on par with the molten salt electrolytic methods of production, though above the 7 MWh/ton theoretical minimum.
Chemistry. The basic chemical equations of this process. reduction of magnesium ores by a reactant. A list of selected magnesium production routes are given in Table 1.
Electrolytic Processes. Electrolytic processes have dominated production magnesium from the s to s. In general, these processes include feed preparation, dehydration of magnesium chloride and electrolysis (Habashi, ). Sponge iron production by tunnel kiln method was developed from as Höganäs method in Sweden.
After many modifications, now this process is a sufficient and effective method for sponge iron production. The main advantage of tunnel kiln process is the possibility to build small plants with low investment costs which are feasible economically. The existing operations produce magnesium using the Pidgeon r, the operations are licensed to expand output to ,tpa, which would make it one of the world's largest magnesium producers, and studies have been completed which augur well for a major expansion of its magnesium operations in a modular form largely by replicating the existing.
Electronic books Conference papers and proceedings Congresses: Additional Physical Format: Evolution of the Magnetherm Magnesium Reduction Process. Research on New Type Materials Preparation for Magnesium Production by Silicothermic ProcessTexture and Twinning; Effect of Grain Size and Basal Texture on Tensile Properties and Fracture.The Pidgeon process is one of the methods of magnesium metal production, via a silicothermic reduction.
Practical production requires roughly 35–40 MWh/ton of metal produced, which is on par with the molten salt electrolytic methods of production, though above the.ordered by regulators in an effort to decrease pollution and conserve energy.
Some plants producing magnesium using the Pidgeon (silicothermic reduction) process were shut down, owing to energy cost increases and to comply with environmental regulations ordered by the Government of China and more are expected to shut down in